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Chapter 39 –  Application Controls
     Myles Walsh

Chapter Contents:

   39.1    Protection in Development
   39.2    Protecting Online Files
   39.2.1    Types of Data Corruption
   39.2.2    Database Management Subsystem    Referential Integrity    Uniqueness Constraints
   39.2.3    Lock on Update    Unconditional Versus Conditional Locking    Deadlocks
   39.2.4    Two-Phase Commit
   39.2.5    Backup Files and System Logs
   39.2.6    Recovery and Restart
   39.2.7    Backout
   39.2.8    Roll-Forward Recovery
   39.2.9    Distributed Databases
   39.3    Protecting Batch Files
   39.3.1    Backup File Creation
   39.3.2    Audit Controls
   39.4    Assuring that Information in the System is Valid
   39.4.1    Validation Controls    Methods for Identifying Input Errors and Unauthorized Modifications    Range Checks    Validity Checks Using Tables
   39.4.2    Diagnostic Utilities
   39.5    Conclusion
   39.6    For Further Reading

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